About Dante

The DTD

Click here to download a text file of the Dante Document Type Definition.

Elements in the DANTE database

Most elements contain other elements, except for capitalized elements which contain data. Greyed-out elements are in the Dante DTD but not used in Dante: these are for use at subsequent stages of the dictionary development.

Element Explanation of use
AbbrEnt within Entry: contains an entry for an abbreviation, acronym, or contraction
CHUNK ‘chunk’: a semantically transparent collocation (see PHR below for idioms)
ChunkCont within SenseCont: contains one chunk and all information pertaining to it, including example(s)
COLLOC ‘collocate’ a single-word collocate based on corpus frequencies
CollocCont within SenseCont: contains one CollocGp of collocates of the same type, the collocate type as appropriate, and examples of the collocates
CollocGp within CollocCont: contains a collocate or series of collocates of the same type
COLLOCTYPE ‘collocate type’: a free text naming of the type of vocabulary found in one set of COLLOCs (optional)
COMMENT a free comment of any sort
COMPLEM complementation of a translation
CORPAT ‘corpus pattern’: a free text explanation of a pattern frequently found in the corpus, e.g. usually in the passive
CorPattCont within SenseCont: contains a corpus pattern with example(s)
CPD ‘compound’: a lemma in its own right: a noun, adjective etc. compound ; note that phrasal verbs are treated separately, as PHRV (see below)
CpdBlk within MWEBlk: contains all the compounds attached to a headword (nouns, adjs, advs etc. but not phrasal verbs)
CpdCont within CpdBlk: contains the sub-entry for one compound (noun, adj, adv etc but not phrasal verb) with all its senses
CpdEnt within Entry, contains an entry for a multiword headword
CpdGp contains all the information concerning a compound lemma (the lemma itself, variants, inflections, labels etc); this is the equivalent of the HwdGp for the case of a compound sub-entry
DECLNUM declension number of translation
DEnt within Entry: contains a default dictionary entry i.e. a standard lexical entry
DicSenseCont contains all the information pertaining to an individual dictionary sense
DicStrCont contains a structure and related information such as translations
DOMAIN a label indicating that a term or translation belongs to a particular domain (cookery, genetics etc)
EMPH an emphasized word or phrase in a note
ENTAILED TERM contains the headword when referred to in a note
Entry contains a dictionary entry (AbbrEnt, CpdEnt, DEnt etc)
ETC ‘etcetera’ used for instance in a list of collocates
EVAL ‘evaluation’: a label indicating writer’s or speaker’s attitude: e.g. pejorative, appreciative etc.
EX ‘example’: a full sentence drawn from the corpus
ExCont can appear with a variety of parent elements; contains an example (EX) and any other information pertaining to the example e.g. a LabelGp
FULLFORM the full form of an abbreviation headword
FuncWdEnt within Entry: contains an entry for a function word
FuncWdNoteCont contains a function word note
GEND the gender of a translation
GLOSS an explanation in the target language where a direct translation cannot be supplied OR supplementary information for a translation
GRAM ‘grammar’: inherent grammatical information pertaining to a headword or a sense of a headword
HOMOGNUM ‘homograph number’: used to differentiate homograph headwords
HWD ‘headword’ (usually a single word)
HwdGp contains all the information concerning the headword (the headword itself, variants, inflections, labels etc)
INDIC an indicator for the source language speaker used to discriminate between different senses or as a pointer to translation nuances
INFLEC inflected form
InflecGp contains inflections and related information
INFLECTYPE inflected form type ( e.g. ‘ptp’ etc.)
ITEM ‘itemizer’: a word used to refer to a single unit of a mass noun, e.g. slice of bacon, litre of milk etc.
ItemCont within a SenseCont: contains an itemizer or a set of itemizers of the same lexical type including examples and, optionally, an item type
ITEMTYPE free text indication of itemizer type relating to one set of itemizers (e.g. measure, weight, portion etc)
LabelGp container for labels such as DOMAIN, EVAL
LATIN Latin family or genus name
LatinGp contains the LATIN tag; for use in entries for birds, flowers etc.
LINK free text: used to link a SenseCont to a PHR or PHRV connected with that sense that is treated in full in the MWEBlk at the foot of the entry; each LINK contains one phrase (PHR) or phrasal verb (PHRV)
MEANING explanation of the meaning of a headword or a sense of a headword: the purpose of this meaning statement is simply to differentiate one sense of a lemma (i.e. a lexical unit, or LU) from the other senses of the lemma
META used with labels to show ‘usually’ (usu), ‘especially’ (esp) etc.
MWEBlk within AbbrEnt, CpdEnt or DEnt: contains all the MWEs attached to a headword: so can contain CpdBlk, PhrBlk, PhrVBlk
NoteGp contains a note, potentially of any type other than regional (for translation) or usage
NUM number of translation i.e. singular or plural
OPT optional element within a translation
ParaGp contains a paragraph within any sort of note
PHR ‘phrase’: a lemma in its own right: the canonical form of a semantically non-transparent idiomatic phrase, for instance to box sb’s ears
PhrBlk within MWEBlk: contains all the phrases attached to a headword
PhrCont within PhrBlk: contains the sub-entry for one phrase with all its LUs
PhrGp contains all the information concerning a phrase lemma (the lemma itself, variants, labels etc); this is the equivalent of the HwdGp for the case of a phrase sub-entry
PHRV ‘phrasal verb’: a lemma in its own right: for instance: box in
PhrVBlk within MWEBlk: contains all the phrasal verbs attached to a headword
PhrVCont within PhrVBlk: contains the sub-entry for one phrasal verb with all its LUs
PhrVGp contains all the information concerning a phrasal verb lemma (the lemma itself, variants, inflections, labels etc); this is the equivalent of the HwdGp for the case of a phrasal verb sub-entry
POS the part of speech of the headword (usually in one specific sense)
PRAG a free text note recording the pragmatic force of a word or expression
REALLEMMA used to ensure that optional elements in translations can be retrieved
REGION label for region-specific headwords, MWEs, examples, chunks, senses, variants, subforms
REGIST label showing register of headwords, MWEs, examples, chunks, senses, variants, subforms
RegVarNoteCont contains a note concerning the regional variants of a translation
SenBlk sense block: contains a sense container or a series of meaning-related sense containers
SENBLKINDIC an overall semantic indicator used to discriminate between sense blocks that group individual meaning-related senses
SenseCont contains all the data pertaining to one sense
STRADJ ‘structure’ a construction forming part of valency or syntactic context of an adjective headword
StrCont within SenseCont: contains a structure of a headword (valency pattern / syntactic context) and all information pertaining to it, including examples
STRN ‘structure’ a construction forming part of valency or syntactic context of a noun headword
STRSTAT ‘structure statement’: used to record the instantiation of a structure found in STRADJ, STRN or STRV, for instance the ‘X’ in PP_X (as instantiated by in,, of, on etc.)
STRTYPE ‘structure type’ used with STRV to record any directional complement (Part_dir) or any locational complement (Part_loc) of the headword
STRV ‘structure’ a construction forming part of valency or syntactic context of a verb headword
STYLE a label indicating the style of use: e.g. literary, poetic etc
SUBFORM used to record a form of the headword (often an inflection) that appears at the head of a sense: e.g. boxed, -friendly. All information in the SenseCont relates to that form, and not to the headword itself
SUPPREP ‘support preposition’, e.g. on fire, in school etc.
SupPrepCont within SenseCont: contains a support preposition and all information pertaining to it, including examples
SUPV ‘support verb’, one of the following: do, give, have, make, take
SupVCont within SenseCont: contains a support verb and all information pertaining to it, including examples
TIME a label indicating that a word or expression is dated or obsolete
TR a translation
TrCont contains one or more translation groups
TRFULLFORM full form of a translation for an abbreviation
TrGp contains a translation and associated information
UsgNoteCont contains a usage note
VAR variant form of a headword or of a sense of a headword
VarCont contains a variant form (VAR) and related information such as a label group
XREF cross-reference to a target lemma: there is no comprehensive use of XREFs, they are inserted only when essential
XRefCont contains one cross-reference and associated information (homograph numbers, sense numbers etc); it can appear at various levels of the framework or entry